Extract of a red algae, supplied by several suppliers including Silab under the tradename Deglysome or BiotechMarine (part of Seppic) under the tradename Biorestorer.

Silab Deglysome is claimed to protect the skin from deleterious damages caused by cellular and tissular glycation, being rich in galactans from Hypnea musciformis algae. Neutralizing the AGEs, this active ingredient maintains the cytoskeleton through the vimentin organization and cell metabolism. Moreover, DEGLYSOME® preserves the matrix integrity by activating the formation of collagen and fibrillin networks. Thanks to its targeted actions, DEGLYSOME® reinforces the tissue functionality and allows the skin to keep its elasticity and to look younger. This active is thus recommended in all firming skin care products.

BiotechMarine Biorestorer is a blend of Hypnea musciformis extract, Water and Butylene glycol. BIORESTORER® by BiotechMarine (SEPPIC) acts as a conditioning, restructuring and film forming agent. It is obtained from seaweed extract. BIORESTORER® reconstitutes protective film through galactan sulfate. Moreover, it provides cuticle smoothening and brightness to hair. BIORESTORER® finds application in formulating dry hair-care products.

Both ingredients are film former thanks to its richness in galactans.


Sold by Shin Etsu under the tradename KSP-100 series. Vinyl Dimethicone/Methicone Silsesquioxane Crosspolymer are powders. They are described by Shin Etsu as “white, spherical silicone composite powder consisting of spherical silicone rubber powder coated with silicone resin. With its properties of both silicone rubber and resin, KSP-100 series imparts a uniquely soft, silky feel and good dispersibility with reduced agglomeration.”

There are several grades of KSP powders, varying according to their average particle sizes, from 2 µm to 30 µm.


Silica Silylate is a siloxane polymer. Siloxanes are chemical compounds built around Silicium atom (Si), with empirical formula R2SiO, R could be organic. Siloxanes are made of chains alternating Silicium and Oxygen atoms (-Si-O-Si-O-Si-O-Si-). Siloxane name comes from Silicium, Oxygen and Alkane.

Silica Silylate is a non-water soluble powder. Dow Corning supplies it under the tradename VM 2270 Aerogel Fine Particles and says it is a highly efficient thickener, sebum absorber and soft focus agent (impacts the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles). It can be used as a thickening agent for organic oils. Its benefits in cosmetic formulas are summarized below :

  • Superior oil and sebum absorption
  • Highly efficient viscosity enhancement (thickening) of oil phase
  • Capable of absorbing polar and non-polar oils
  • Fragrance delivery and retention
  • Impacts the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles
  • Allows for cold processing

It is also supplied by Wacker under the tradename HDK H2000.


[Source 1] [Source 2] [Source 3] [Source 4] [Source 5]




INCI name of polymers supplied by Daito Kasei under the tradename Makimousse. They are water absorbing polymers. They are sold as a powder that swell very easily with water, in the shape of very little polymeric balls.

There are 4 grades of Makimousse : Makimousse 7, 12, 25 and 400, each number represent the mean size of the swelled polymeric balls.

Makimousse 7, 12 and 25 can be used in leave on skincare. Makimousse 7 will give shiny and smooth textures. Due to the increased size of the swelled balls of Sodium Polyacrylate Starch, Makimousse 12 will give smooth and frosted textures, and Makimousse 25 matte and frosted textures. All three are presented by Daito Kasei as rheology modifiers, while Makimousse 400, with its much larger size, is recommended as gentle exfoliating agent.

Makimousse Textures

[Source 1] [Source 2]



Lecithin is part of the complex lipids (i.e. fat) found in biological tissues. More precisely, they are part of the phospholipid family (i.e. lipids containing phosphorus).

Lecithin is a naturally occuring mixture of the diglycerides of stearic, palmitic and oleic acids, linked to the choline ester of phosphoric acid whose form varies from a waxy mass to a thick, pourable liquid. Hydrogenated Lecithin is the product of controlled hydrogenation (addition of hydrogen) of Lecithin. Lecithin and Hydrogenated Lecithin are used in the formulation of a large number of cosmetics and personal care products.

Lecithin and Hydrogenated Lecithin enhance the appearance of dry or damaged skin by reducing flaking and restoring suppleness. These ingredients also help to form emulsions by reducing the surface tension of the substances to be emulsified.

Phospholipids can be used in cosmetic products in several ways.
As a technical ingredient, phospholipids can be used as an emulsifier, a liposome former, a solubilizer and a wetting agent. On top of that, phospholipids are cosmetic actives.
As cosmetic actives, natural phospholipids isolated from soy beans provide the essential fatty acids linoleic acid and linolenic acid. These phospholipids are renowned for their ability to maintain the skin in healthy condition and to ameliorate skin disorders like acne vulgaris and neurodermitis, or slow down skin aging. Furthermore they play a role to liquefy the stratum corneum and as penetration enhancer (soybean phosphatidylcholine) or act as compounds which strengthen the skin barrier function (hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine).The availability of multifunctional natural phospholipids in various grades and modifications with controlled quality provide the formulator a valuable tool box for designing optimal cosmetic products.


Hydrogenated Polyisobutene is a non-polar (i.e. non-hydrophilic, or lipophilic, or going into the oily phase of an emulsion) polymer. It has a branched chains aliphatic hydrocarbon structure, without ring structure.

Hydrogenated Polyisobutene

It is supplied by NOF Corp. under the tradename Parleam, or by Sophim under the tradename Sophim MC.

Sophim claims the following benefits of Hydrogenated Polyisobutene :

  • Colorless, odorless, tasteless
  • Totally stable versus oxidation
  • Stable across the pH range
  • MC 300 is an effective waterproofing agent
  • Enhances SPF retention after water exposure
  • Soluble in main sunscreen filters
  • MC 30 has excellent spreadability and fast penetration into the skin
  • Emollient, moisturizer, restore skin suppleness
  • Prevents Insensible Water Loss (IWL)
  • Miscible with lipophilic substances
  • Soft feel, non  greasy
  • Easily emulsifiable
  • Pigment dispersing agent for decorative cosmetics
  • Non comedogenic
  • Non irritant, non toxic, full inocuity

In NOF Corp. portofolio, there are several grades of Parleam. The standard grade of Parleam is claimed to “have a similar physical and chemical properties as Squalane. The product is widely used for skin and hair care such as lotions and skin creams as well as make-up cosmetics and ointments.


High molecular weight silicone elastomer, that imparts a very velvety feel to skincare products.

One of its supplier, Dow Corning, claims the below benefit for Dimethicone Crosspolymer :

– Contributes a silky, smooth feel in formulations
– Long-lasting skin feel
– Provides thickening in anhydrous and w/o emulsion formulations
– Can be used in either hot or cold processes
This elastomer is supplied among others by Dow Corning as different blend with linear or cyclic silicones :
DC 9041 (Dimethicone (and) Dimethicone Crosspolymer)
DC 9040 and DC 9045 (Dimethicone (and) Dimethicone Crosspolymer)


Sodium Stearoyl Glutamate is a surfactant. It is sold by Ajinomoto under the tradename Amisoft HS11-P. Ajinomoto describes this ingredient as “an anionic surfactant produced from L-Glutamic acid (an amino acid) and plant-derived palm fatty acid. Extremely hypoallergenic and well suited as a emulsifier. The pH is similar to that of the skin, therefore, it is very mild to the skin. Natural and environmentally friendly.

Sodium Stearoyl Glutamate



Trehalose : it is a natural disaccharide, with a high water retention capabilities. Hayashibara is a supplier of Trehalose. Specifically for skincare, Hayashibara explains that Trehalose is an effective moisturizer, since it protects skin fibroblast from dehydration due to its capacity to replace water in tissues.


Tocopheryl Acetate is a Vitamin E derivative. It is metabolized on the skin to release Tocopherol, the chemical name of Vitamin E. Vitamin E is a naturally occuring lipophilic antioxidant,